Adverse symptoms related to menstruation are common during the menstrual cycle. A menstrual cycle occurs in a healthy woman about once a month. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are particularly common and problematic, causing cramps, body aches, and many other devastating physical and emotional symptoms. A systematic review and meta-analysis conducted in Japan now finds commonalities in risk factors for the prevalence and severity of PD and PMS, showing that some symptoms can be successfully self-managed. rice field.
Previous studies investigating PD and PMS symptoms have found a variety of risk factors, but have come to inconclusive conclusions. Most studies are limited to PD during menstruation and PMS before menstruation. However, Professor Nakata’s research group found that symptoms were common and similar both before and during menstruation. Therefore, their review included symptoms of both stages. Researchers led by Professor Yoshio Nakata investigated English and Japanese studies on menstrual-related symptoms, with a focus on PD and PMS.
Nakata’s team first searched biomedical literature in English and Japanese. They sought an observational study in a healthy woman that covered her PD and PMS. Further review narrowed the list from her 1,479 to 77 studies that met our rigorous criteria. From these, we extracted data on physical characteristics, menstrual characteristics, and lifestyle factors. The results showed physical characteristics such as age and BMI. Menstrual characteristics such as longer duration and irregular cycles; lifestyle factors such as sleep duration and smoking all influenced the prevalence and severity of menstrual-related symptoms. Some of the identified risk factors were beyond individual control, such as age and family history. However, other characteristics offer hope for alleviating symptoms.
Among our findings, BMI, stress, sleep duration, and bedtime were associated with the prevalence of PD, and smoking was associated with the prevalence of PMS. The good news is that women can do a lot to manage these risk factors themselves.”
Professor Yoshio Nakata
To the researchers’ knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively examine the extent to which all these factors influence the prevalence and severity of PD and PMS. Interventions and management that address the most important factors have the potential to improve symptoms and thereby improve the quality of life for many women.
Ryo Mitsuhashi and others. (2022) Factors associated with prevalence and severity of menstrual-related symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010569.