Cardiovascular disease is known to be a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the direct and indirect effects of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have further increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The effects and long-term effects of COVID-19 may further increase cardiovascular burden to abnormal levels.
Prevention of life-threatening cardiovascular and thromboembolic events (CVE) is critical for treating COVID-19 patients on an individual basis. However, it is difficult to accurately identify individuals at sufficient risk who may require advanced surveillance or targeted pharmacological interventions.
Common risk factors such as age, obesity, and gender have been reported to be significant predictors of COVID-19 severity, hospitalization, and ventilator need. However, it is not very effective in determining CVE risk. The polygenic risk score (PRS), which is the sum of genetic risks for specific traits, has been identified as an important tool for precision medicine and early classification of cardiovascular risk. However, it is unknown whether genetic susceptibility to CVE influences the occurrence of acute or acute-phase COVID-19-associated CVE.
Moreover, with the increase in COVID-19 infections, especially after the initial restrictions have been lifted, effective public health interventions are urgently needed to reduce the cardiovascular burden of the population. In 2022, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force updated its recommendations for promoting healthy behavioral counseling for all adults to prevent cardiovascular complications. However, largely due to the lack of sufficient evidence, all official and clinical health guidelines determine the impact of healthy lifestyle changes on reducing her COVID-19 cardiovascular complications. you can’t.
New research posted on medrex sib*The preprint server is intended to analyze the association of lifestyle risk factors, PRS, and their interactions with risk of CVE within 90 days of diagnosis of COVID-19.
The study included UK Biobank participants who tested positive for COVID-19 by PCR between 1 March 2020 and 30 September 2021. Two sets of standard and enhanced PRS were developed and validated by UK Biobank. PRS for ischemic stroke (ISS), coronary artery disease (CAD), venous thromboembolism (VTE), and atrial fibrillation (AF) were used in the primary analysis and enhanced PRS in one of the analyses. rice field. In addition, classification of ongoing PRS was performed as high-risk, low-risk, and intermediate-risk.
Comprehensive index of healthy life by combining data on nine lifestyle factors, including alcohol consumption, smoking status, TV viewing time, physical activity, fatty fish intake, processed meat intake, red meat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake. , and sleep time. All lifestyle factors were assigned a score of 0 for healthy and 1 for unhealthy. A sum of all lifestyle factors was then performed, with scores ranging from 0 to 4 classified as a healthy lifestyle and those ranging from 5 to 9 classified as an unhealthy lifestyle.
Finally, we defined the date of first infection with COVID-19 as the index date and followed participants for 90 days. An analysis of the four major CVEs (VTE, CAD, AF, and ISS) reported as COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications was performed. Clinical outcomes were determined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes similar to those used in PRS development.
They found that the average age of COVID-19 participants was 65.99 years old, and most of them were white and female. The prevalence of the nine factors of unhealthy lifestyle was observed to range from 10.8% for smoking status to 48.5% for low intake of fatty fish. Overall, a total of 8.6% of infected people are reported to be leading an unhealthy lifestyle.
After infection, 135 VTE, 29 ISS, 244 CAD, and 422 AF events were reported to occur during the follow-up period, representing 0.53%, 0.12%, 0.96%, and 1.67% of the COVID-19 cohort, respectively. accounted for Incidence rates were reported to be 6.12 per 1,000 person-years for ISS, 86.9 for AF, 48.5 for CAD, and 28.0 for VTE.
Additionally, higher PRS for VTE, AF, or CVD have been reported to increase the risk of CVE after COVID-19. However, no association was observed between ISS-PRS and ISS after COVID-19. We observed that the overall associations of AF with VTE, CAD, and each PRS were similar despite differences in baseline risk. Additionally, a participant at high genetic risk has been reported to have a higher incidence of his CVE post-COVID-19.
People with healthier habits were found to have lower risk of CAD, AF, and ISS, but no association with VTE was observed. The prevention rates for his CVE outcomes with healthy lifestyle changes were reported to be 5.86% for ISS, 2.95% for CAD, and 2.46% for AF. No interaction was observed between lifestyle and genetic factors for CVE outcome.
Furthermore, the results of the sensitivity analysis were observed to be similar to the primary analysis. The degree of PRS-association was reduced in sensitivity analyzes of hospitalization-related and incident events compared with estimates of events diagnosed after infection.
Thus, the current study demonstrated that genetic risk of cardiovascular disease may be associated with short-term risk of VTE, AF, and VAD complications after COVID-19 infection. However, those who adhered to a healthy lifestyle had a lower risk, regardless of genetic risk. suggest that it can reduce the burden on the cardiovascular system of the population during
This study has certain limitations. First, PRS scores may not indicate the greatest genetic contribution to COVID-19 cardiovascular complications. Second, this study may document the overdiagnosis of her COVID-19 patients. Third, PRS may not be able to provide additional forecast information. Fourth, lifestyle behavior data collected 10 years ago can be subject to misclassification and bias. Finally, the UK Biobank participants are more representative of a healthier population than the general population and of European ancestry, which may limit the generalizability of the results.
medRxiv publishes non-peer-reviewed, preliminary scientific reports and should not be considered conclusive, to guide clinical practice/health-related actions, or to be treated as established information .